I am getting my intermediate ITIL certification (you can read the wiki page if you are having trouble sleeping, works a treat), and boy does that take up time! Like ALL of it @_@ We also had a family crisis, a stroke has hit a very beloved uncle. Thankfully he is onto the recovery phase but it has struck us all with fear and worry, but he is as stubborn as I am so I am sure he will recover as much as possible. 🙂 Sometimes being stubborn is a really good thing!
Thankfully I passed my test, uncle is doing good in physical rehabilitation, so now I just have to face my old nemesis – the weather. Texas is getting lots of rain, because of this stupid polar vortex thing. At least we are, I think, only 30-ish feet below what our lakes need to be at. (I know that sounds bad but trust me it is better than it was!) But rain means migraines and feeling bad, even after my botox since my legs are so grumpy with the weather switch…so why not talk about something that brightens your day, and lifts your spirits? Everyone needs a pick-me-up now and then, especially people with stress and chronic pain, and saffron is a great way to bring that sunshine-y feeling into your day! Just thinking about its golden color and lovely smell is enough to make me break out in a goofy grin!
Saffron, unless you are familiar with more exotic fare than most Americans, is probably an unknown to a lot of you. Some may know of it just from it’s expense, since it takes 50,000-75,000 flowers to produce a pound of dried saffron, and is a spice that is worth more than its weight in gold. Though it is not out of reach to the home cook, and is carried in most good grocery stores with a good spice section.
Saffron is so expensive because (if it is good quality saffron), it must all be harvested by hand, since it is so delicate, though some cheaper saffron is not harvested this way. Then add to that the erratic blooming of the crocus that produces the saffron and you see why it costs anywhere from 500$ (US) to 5.000$ for large amounts. But I may have gotten ahead of myself, what exactly is saffron? Saffron, is the dried stigma of a specific type of crocus flower, Crocus sativus. Yes, that means it is made of the sexy bits of flowers.
But you are, if you are familiar with saffron, more accustomed to seeing it like this:
The name saffron comes down to us from early history, and has been translated and mistranslated for ages so its etymology has a somewhat murky story. The word we use in English now could be from the Latin safranum or the Old French safran. Which both the Latin and the Old French could be derived from a Persian origin, with it possibly being an Arabicised version of the original Persian word zarparān or even an Akkadian word azupiranu. There is even a theory that the Crocus name itself comes from Aramaic word kurkema, that came from the Arabic kurkum and the Greek in between words of krokos or karkum. It is mentioned in the Song of Solomon as karcom, or not mentioned depending on what version you are reading. But almost all of them seem to derive from words that mean “yellow,” “yellowish,” or “having yellow leaves.” As you can see the origin of the name for saffron is fairly murky, but not nearly as murky as its earliest uses by humanity.
Saffron has a long, very long, and occasionally sordid, past with humans, and a plethora of uses. So I suggest you have a comfy chair and a nice cup of tea ready, and then start reading this, since this post has a lot (seriously a lot!) of history and info. 🙂
If you don’t care about all that history and stuff, just skip down to the Medicinal or Recipes section!
History of Saffron and its Uses
Saffron is kind of like beer, or the wheel, or writing, since everyone wants to have started using it or discovered first. Just like we are not fully sure on the name origin, we don’t really know when it was first discovered, by whom, or what country first used it. But we do know that there are some great Minoan wall frescoes that show saffron being harvested in fields that date from about the 16th to 17th century BC but could be as old as 3000 BC at the far end of the estimate. Saffron has been used probably since before this time, but these frescoes are one of the earliest known documentations of the saffron harvest and possible offering to the “Mistress of Animals,” a goddess or queen featured here. Young women and monkeys are shown hand harvesting the stamens of crocus plants. Sadly early reconstructions of the frescoes made the monkeys into people, but we now know they are simians more like this.
Minoans knew well the value of saffron and there is enough evidence to believe that they were using them to treat wounds, and saffron could compete with maybe even beer as one of the oldest medicines. Which we now think is be being shown in the fresco below where a woman is now thought to be treating her foot with saffron. She was first thought to be an initiate or a woman offering saffron to a seated goddess. But it is now speculated, based on the influence that the Egyptian art style had on Minoans (or possibly vice versa), that her hand is on her forehead in a gesture of suffering, while she treats her bleeding foot with saffron.
Being in the state it is in, since it is so old and a survivor of the effects of a volcanic eruption, it makes it hard to see what is actually going on in this picture. We are extremely lucky these frescoes survived the volcanic explosion as well as they did since it extinguished the Minoan culture, and we would have lost one of the earliest documented saffron harvests and much more information. (This eruption is a possible source for those pesky Atlantis stories that the History Channel likes to air so frequently). There is a somewhat accurate reconstruction that makes things much more clear –
There is an interesting theory I have read in my research that since the diets of the Minoans were riboflavin (B2) deficient, and higher status women were healthier due to their consumption of saffron. Not just the Minoans loved saffron, but Greece also loved saffron. Hippocrates knew well of saffron, and he mentions its use in recipes for treating ulcers, along with some other odd ingredients, like natron and ox gall. Of course because of Greek culture, there is a myth about it’s origin, somewhat less sexy than the story of Attis and his pine, but it still has to do with love (well usually). There are a few different stories, and of course variations of each and none of them are exactly alike. It seems the crocus flower held quite a place in Greek culture to have so many renditions of its origins. The first one is the one I know best, and is possibly the best known, is from Ovid.
Crocus (Krokus) was a Greek youth (some say Spartan some Arkadian, but his exact origins are lost in the mists of time), this youth fell in love with a nymph. Nymphs if you aren’t up on your Greek mythology, are not known for being good to the guys that love them and inevitably poor Crocus is snubbed by Smilax. It gets a little fuzzy here since some sources say that the gods (ie – mostly Zeus and his ilk) or Smilax herself, turned Crocus into the little crocus flowers we are now familiar with. The red-orange stigmas were thought to represent the remnants of his unrequited love for the nymph.
“Crocus and Smilax may be turn’d to flow’rs,
And the Curetes spring from bounteous show’rs
I pass a hundred legends stale, as these,
And with sweet novelty your taste to please” – Ovid
Persephone was another that was tied to the crocus, she was gathering flowers (according to Homeric myth, which Homer also referred to dawn as a “crocus veil”) and some of them were crocus flowers. When Hades popped up from the underworld and decided to snatch her away to “have his way with her” as they put it. She then became the part time dweller in the underworld, due to his trickery and creepy kidnap-y ways. But the crocus was not done yet, it bloomed to announce her return to the world, which angered Demeter at first as she had put the kibosh on any plant blooming until Persephone returned. Demeter then put on a mantle of white crocus, and Persephone rejoined the world surrounded by yellow ones. These are probably different species, but still crocus relatives to the one that produce saffron.
But wait! There are other stories for the crocus, because one creepy stalk ‘n’ snatch Greek myth isn’t ever enough! And this one has Zeus, King of the Gods, and King of the Creepy Stalkers. As Danae will tell you from her encounter with Zeus.
Zeus was definitely not a guy you wanted to meet if you were a young lady. Europa, the mythic namesake of Europe, was supposedly the descendant of Io, another of Zeus’s “conquests,” she was a Phoenician (or at least the myths seem to agree on that one fact), though the lineage is more debated. Despite who her parents were, it seems the unlucky Europa ended up (somehow, no one seems to agree how) on Crete, which has always held the bull extremely sacred. So Zeus, decided why not see if she would be into that? So he of course became a bull, a sexy bull! Bull-Zeus then breathed, either lots of crocus flowers from his mouth or just a single bloom, which maybe standards were different then, but that seemed to be enough to get Europa close enough to be snatched away.
We have another story, this one possibly involving love…possibly not – but definitely a lot less creepy than a Zeus story. Some say that Hermes was enamored with Crocus and took him as a lover. Some say they were just really good friends, either way – they were close as a god and mortal could be. Hermes invited Crocus to come play discus (or Crocus was watching from the sidelines again myths differ, some even say they were playing with quoit, the poor man’s discus), and poor Crocus was hit by the disc and died (all the myths agree that he received a mortal wound from the game). The red stamen is thought to represent the blood of the poor Crocus that was spilled.
I have seen some ideas tossed about that some of the reason that Hermes and Crocus were tied together was due to the saffron crocus’ inability to reproduce without human assistance. Who knows if this is right or wrong but it is an interesting point, since the crocus flower has to have human help for it to reproduce.
The Greeks also used saffron as a perfume and it was noted that the people of Rhodes, also known for their colossal statue, wore pouches of saffron around their necks to cover the scent of the lower classes when attending the theater. It was also associated with the hetaerae, who used it in their perfumes, cosmetics, incense and many other things. But it wasn’t just the Greeks, that knew about saffron early on in history. In the 7th century BC a botanical treatise was compiled in Assyria under the King Ashurbanipal and saffron got its first written mention. In many places in the Persian empire, places like Derbena, Isfahan, Khorasan, there have been found textiles with saffron threads woven into them found dating to the 10th century BC. Saffron was offered to deities in rituals, in perfumes, and were scattered onto beds or used as a tea to chase away melancholy. Saffron has been loved through the ages by what we would now consider Arabic, or Arabian countries, and it is frequently still used in a lot of delicious Arabic dishes. The use of saffron in Arabic culture helped to carry it through the ages and across many countries, and could be how saffron got into Spain. In Morocco, there is an ancient recipe used to relieve toothaches, and teething was eased by saffron and honey placed on a gold ring. It was also frequently used in baths by the Persians, who then taught the practice to Alexander the Great, who used it in his baths but also in rice and to treat wounds. It is thought that he brought the tradition of bathing in saffron from Persia to the Greeks. Saffron can be used as a skin lightener, as a lotion or in a bath, and some say an aphrodisiac. Alexander most likely bathed in it to ease or heal wounds from battle, but another famous person bathed in it to seduce men (and it possibly worked) and that was Cleopatra.
Egypt was a huge power in the ancient world, and was involved in lots of trade and has a history of use of saffron. Cleopatra, who is closer in time to us than the first use of saffron, was rumored to bathe in it pre-encounters with powerful men in the belief that it made *ahem* “sexy time” much more pleasurable for both. Bow chicka wow wow! It is said she used up to a quarter cup of saffron, which if you were paying attention to price, that is a lot of saffron for a bath. But when you are a queen of a mega-power like Egypt, even a waning one, you can afford to dump loads of saffron into your tub. It is unknown if this aided her at all in her endeavors to seduce men of power, but who knows? Saffron is older in Egypt than Cleopatra, and has a mention in the often name dropped Ebers Papyrus – which recommends saffron powder, blended with beer to help women with labor if it becomes difficult. It is also mentioned as a diuretic – though don’t confuse this with Meadow Saffron which is also mentioned but used for treating rheumatism and swelling. It was also used in Egypt to make perfumes, cosmetics, in embalming rituals, and for dying cloth. Dying is a great use for saffron since a few stamens can dye 10 gallons of water.
The Romans knew of saffron as well, and saffron pillows were used to ease the pain of migraines, and Galen notes it is an analgesic. Other ancient Roman doctors mention in their writings that it is good for treating coughs, colds, stomach issues, insomnia, and to prompt a woman’s cycle – and because of this, it was covertly used as an abortifacient. A little known Roman doctor, Celsus, had a remedy for bad coughs that had ingredients like saffron, myrrh, pepper, cinnamon and opium (and other things) all combined and rolled into a pill. They also believed it to be an aphrodisiac, and included it in offerings to gods. They also used it as a deodorizer like the people of Rhodes, as cosmetics, to perfume their homes, and an ingredient to add to wines. Nero, when he entered Rome, had saffron spread along the streets, and other wealthy Romans took saffron baths like Cleopatra, which could have been learned from her.
Saffron was possibly brought to Gaul (modern day France) until the “barbarians” rolled up and rolled hard on Rome, and everything collapsed, and France possibly didn’t see saffron again until the Moors made it deep into France (and then were stopped by Charles Martel) or it could be when the Papacy moved to Avignon, opinions differ on this one. Then in the medieval era in Europe, saffron was used to create illuminated manuscripts since it provided lovely yellows and oranges.
Saffron probably became more prevalent in Medieval cooking due to the exposure to Arabic cooking, which uses saffron frequently in feast-type dishes, and desserts. Medieval cooks also liked to use saffron to tint dishes the color of gold since consuming gold (and silver) were a common practice for the rich, and gold colored food was just as good as eating gold itself. Saffron was prized for cooking and for medicine it places like Italy, Catalonia and England. Its ability to easily tint a large amount of food using very little of it, made it ideal for brightening up the Medieval diet. Since saffron was so expensive, including large amounts in food for feasts or meals was a visible display of wealth. You could also “gild” food by covering it with a mixture of saffron and egg yolk so that it almost seems like meals were dreamed up by Heston Blumenthal, celebrity chef and wearer of silly glasses. France had a well known syrup passed down that was used to ease painful periods with tea including milk and saffron. There was a belief for a while that like cured like and saffron’s yellow color was thought to be a good way to cure jaundice. In Venice the famous Venetian blond was created by dying hair with saffron and lemon, and then exposing the hair to sun. After the Black Death struck Europe, the demand for saffron went through the roof, since it was thought to help cure people of plague. Because of the increase in demand, and death of many local European cultivators of saffron, cost also increased to the point that some pirates would raid ships for their saffron completely ignoring the gold stores. Sadly as the reformation movement spread across Europe, and the Puritans gained more power, the love of saffron (and many other spices) decreased and became a rarity. Many of the Puritans and sects like them, thought that spices, especially ones said to be aphrodisiacs were going to create lust in individuals and be the ruin of all the world. Which oddly enough in some sects of Lutheran and other types of Puritan sects saffron was integral, we will go over that more further on.
As we move further East, and further back in time, saffron was often used as a dye, instead of using it to create a less purple dye (royal robes are triple dipped in deep purple dyes, and for everyone else one dip and two in saffron) as they did in Sidion and Tyre, it was used to dye cloth outright. The robes of many Buddhist monks are referred to as saffron colored, since this was originally one of the ingredients used to dye them. It is thought that the Persians could have been the first to bring saffron to India and beyond, and brought in the crocus as their empire expanded, or it could have been the Phoenicians in about the 6th century BC that brought it in over their extensive trade routes. It was first mentioned in India in Ayurvedic texts in about 500 BC and became an ingredient in many medicines, used as a dye, and many other things. In Ayurvedic medicine it was frequently used to treat skin issues, coughs, digestion issues, as a diuretic and to calm nerves (as well as many other things). Saffron is also believed to be an aphrodisiac in India, and was provided on wedding nights by the bride to the groom in a cup of milk mixed with saffron, or even as a perfume of saffron mixed with sandalwood oil – a perfume frequently used by Rajput brides. Like the other ancient cultures we have mentioned saffron was a worthy offering to the gods, and some ceremonies like Mahamastakabhisheka where a large statue is bathed with many things including saffron.
Saffron is also used in Tantric practices to awaken the kundalini and is the color on the Indian national flag and the Sikh flag. In China the first reference of saffron is from a medical text dating to 1600 BC, who’s name translates to the “Great Herbal.” Saffron was used to not only treat depression but was thought to bring cheerfulness and wisdom. To lower blood pressure and even stimulate respiration, as well as easing digestion. It can help with stress by lowering the blood pressure, stimulating respiration and helps to thin the blood. It is also used to flavor wine.
In North America, it was the previously mentioned Protestants that brought saffron with them when they settled in the new colonies. There is documentation that in 1730-1731 a member of the Schwenkfelder Church came to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania with the bulbs of the crocus in trunks, and it is thought that the person in that group that previously sold saffron in Europe was responsible for the bringing over of the spice. Sadly the War of 1812 destroyed much of the trade lines, and traders, that carried saffron to Europe, the Caribbean and beyond. The Pennsylvanians were left with a major surplus and their trade never recovered, and the Caribbean markets died with that war as well. The Pennsylvania Dutch growers found ways to put saffron in everything, because what else do you do with it? Reminds me of the saying “when you are holding a hammer all the world looks like a nail.” Saffron cultivation in the US was saved and carried into modern times by the Pennsylvania Dutch, and it is mostly in Lancaster County Pennsylvania that it is grown and harvested.
Grades and Adulteration
Make sure you buy the real thing! If you see saffron for a crazy low price, it probably isn’t saffron. Saffron is one of the highest adulterated spices around. It is frequently adulterated with safflower, glycerine, sandalwood dust, and turmeric, on the less bad end of the scale; tartrazine, barium sulfate, and borax on the worst. You can usually detect fraud with your nose, it will smell like bark or chemically even through sealed plastic packaging. Second test is your eyes, it should look like tiny stamens of a plant like my saffron below:
Not like this bunk saffron I got for 3.00$ US at a Fiesta.
You can also tell by the color of the water, when you use saffron you usually place the threads in hot water and allow them to steep and the water will turn this lovely golden yellow almost orange color. It should remind you of Buddhist monk’s robes since they are died with saffron traditionally. If it looks plain yellow or sort of murky yellow, probably not the real deal. Also, avoid pre-ground or bottles of saffron liquids, these are almost always adulterated with artificial dyes, turmeric, and many other things of a questionable nature.
Some countries and companies grade their saffron, and highest grade is something you would want to purchase if it is the star spice in the recipe and won’t get covered or lost in other spices. It is also the best for making saffron teas, and trust me it is worth the extra cost. Low grade is good for background saffron, where it is mostly there for color and not for taste. Lower grades cost less, and can be used as the main spice but higher grade generally tastes better. There are also many locations to get saffron from, it is usually best if your saffron says where it is from on the bag/bottle/box. If it doesn’t it probably isn’t saffron. Persian saffron is the most expensive and highly prized for its slight musky notes that help counter the sweetness of it. Spanish saffron, possibly brought to Spain by the Moors though there are other suspects, is highly controlled and is a good bet if you can’t find Persian and want to make sure you are getting good quality saffron at a reasonable price.
Saffron as Medicine
So now we know what it was used in the past to treat, and you may have noticed a common theme of it being used to treat “melancholy” or depression. The active ingredient in saffron that makes it so awesome is safranal, which is a known anticonvulsant and has shown some real promise in research for being a natural form of an anti-depressant. It binds to GABA receptors, and it is possible that the safranal acts as an uptake inhibitor serotonin, and the crocin takes care of dopamine and norepinephrine. Which means that this is one of the herbal medicines that may have better efficacy when taken in its natural form due to the entourage effect. There have been a lot of animal trials with excellent results, but no human trials yet but the medical research done is extremely promising, and couple that with the history saffron has and that makes it much more than hearsay. Its anticonvulsant properties also make it great for spasms and general relaxation of the body, mind and spirit. There also seems to be some real promise in using saffron as an anti-inflammatory as well which is usually key in reducing pain in general.
Saffron is also high in riboflavin, or B2 as we have said before, and crocetin which are a type of chemical that may provide protection from neurotoxins, and is why saffron has its distinct coloring. Saffron also contains lots of cartenoids – which is like carotene like the all too familiar beta-carotene which saffron has as well as alpha-carotene. Another chemical in saffron is zeaxanthin, which is another chemical that is really good for your eyesight. We also know how important all these vitamins are for helping fight pain, and making sure you are taking them in their natural state means that you aren’t wasting money on supplements you don’t need. There is a lot more chemistry involved with saffron but these are the main properties we are concerned with.
WARNING: Saffron in large amounts is possibly dangerous, and by large more than 20 grams (usual dosages are .01 to .02 per person, but even a gram or 5 in a recipe is safe) so it is necessary to be careful how much you ingest in a day. There is a lot of different information on it’s toxicity – some say as little as 5 some say more. Most likely this comes from adulterated saffron, often it is adulterated with or confused with meadow saffron (which IS toxic). Though its expensive nature does help prevent large amounts being consumed, it probably is safe in large amounts but there have not been enough studies to be 100% sure.
ProSpiceTip: Ginger, cardamom, and turmeric are all good friends of saffron and they all play very nicely with each other. In some recipes you can replace saffron with turmeric but it doesn’t taste as good in my humble opinion.
Yes! Make it, don’t buy it! This is something you can make and store for a few days in your fridge, and you can use salt or sugar in it to suit whatever dishes you will be making with it.
- large-ish pinch of saffron, just a gram or so
- tiny pinch of sugar or salt (whatever suits your recipe)
- Mortar and Pestle (you can use a coffee grinder, but it is best to have a dedicated one for saffron only if you are going to go that route)
- Hot water – about a 1/4 of a cup
Grind the saffron into a powder, add in the salt or sugar whichever you are using, and make sure that everything is ground finely. Cover with hot water, you can bring it up to a boil but it isn’t necessary, let stand for 15 minutes but you can leave it for longer. Use in your recipe and you can save any leftovers in a sealed, dark bottle for up to 3 days. Make sure you use a dark bottle as the chemicals in saffron degrade in direct light.
- 3-4 Saffron threads
- 2-3 tablespoons Hot water
- Boiling water
- Honey (to taste)
Put the threads of saffron and hot water in a cup, allow to steep for 10-15 minutes, top off cup with boiling water and add honey to taste (raw honey is best).
This is a great tea for helping chase “the blues” away, whether chronic or from seasonal changes. It is also a good tea to drink to break up the monotony of other anti-inflammatory herbs, like turmeric, so that you have a variety of things to pick from. Since it can be toxic in large doses it is best to alternate days with this if you are planning on taking it for an extended period of time. Always remember you should never take anything for more than 2 weeks straight as the body will become accustomed to it and it will not be as effective.
Kuwaiti Traditional Tea
- 1 1/2 cups water
- 2 whole Cardamom pods, broken
- 1 pinch Saffron powder (10-12 strands)
- 2 teaspoons Black Tea
- 1 Raw sugarcube, or honey
Add everything except for the honey in a sauce pan, simmer for a minute or two, maybe even five if you like a strong tea. Strain and serve with honey or a raw sugarcube.
Ginger Saffron Tea – Wellness Tea
- 4 cups water
- 2 tablespoons warm water
- 3 inches Fresh ginger (thumb sized)
- 1 True cinnamon stick
- 3-4 tablespoons Honey
- 1 pinch Saffron (10-12 strands)
Fist put your kettle on, then peel the ginger, and grate, add it along with the honey and cinnamon stick to a teapot. Add saffron strands to the warm water. When you have the water at a boil add it to the teapot and allow to steep for 10 minutes. Add the saffron with the liquid to the teapot, and allow to steep for another 5. You can also use 2 tablespoons of saffron liquid from the previous recipe, make sure you use sugar in the grinding process.
This is a really great variation on the Ounce of Prevention Tea, and saffron has a lot of vitamins that many are lacking in their daily diets. So if you are getting bored with Prevention Tea, try this.
- 1/4 cup Whole almonds
- 1/4 cup Strained Yogurt (or Plain Greek yogurt)
- 2 teaspoons Lime or Lemon juice
- pinch of Ground turmeric
- 1/2 teaspoon Sandalwood
- pinch of Saffron
First make your strained yogurt, if you don’t know how to do this go here and follow the instructions. Then soak the almonds in a bowl of water overnight, peel the skins off the next morning and grind into a fine paste in a food processor or strong blender. Add in the strained yogurt, lime (or lemon) juice, turmeric, sandalwood, and the saffron threads. Blend again in the food processor or blender until smooth and creamy. This cream can be stored in a clean container in the fridge for about a week, and you should apply it after washing your face at night. Smooth it all over your skin and massage in gently, in the morning wash your face again.
ProLazyLotionTip: You can also make a simpler lotion by using about a teaspoon of milk, or coconut milk (or even coconut oil, olive oil or honey all work for this) and allowing a few strands of saffron to soak in this overnight. Rub into the skin gently, wait a bit (like 10 mins) and then wash off.
These lotions are good for fighting acne, skin rashes, sunburns, helps reduce age spots and brighten dull skin.
This is just about the easiest recipe on here.
- Generous pinch of Saffron
- Hot bath
Draw a very hot bath, too hot for you since it will cool down, add in saffron threads and let steep for 10 to 20 minutes and then enjoy your soak. This is a good bath to ease aches and pains, inflammation of the skin or otherwise, to heal skin issues (ie sunburns, rashes, open wounds), and brighten skin. It is a bit on the expensive side so unless you have unlimited saffron funds, you may want to save this for every now and then.
Saffron Natural Hair Dye
- Large pinch of saffron
- 2 cups Boiling water
- Large jug or measuring cup (2-4 cups)
- 1 tablespoon Lemon juice
This is apparently a similar recipe used to the Venetian hair dyes I mentioned previously. Boil 2 cups of distilled water, and add the saffron threads to the jug or measuring cup and then cover with the boiling water. Let soak for 10-15 minutes, the longer the soak the stronger the color, strain out the saffron threads and add in the lemon juice. Pour small amounts of the liquid through your hair, try to do it at least 10-15 times 20 is best if you can manage it. You can catch some of the liquid and reuse it if possible. On the last pass, wring out and leave the excess liquid in the hair for 15 minutes, and then rinse with cool water. You could also sit in the sun and allow the mixture to dry in the hair before rinsing for an even lighter color.
ProLighteningTip: You can also lighten hair with chamomile tea and lemon juice by pouring one or both on the hair and then sitting in the sun, or highlighting it by using a straw hat with holes or even a highlighting cap. Saffron leaves a more golden color and tends to actually tint the hair rather than semi-bleaching it like chamomile or lemon juice does.
Saffron Eggnog (from Grow Your Own Drugs)
- 500 ml whole milk [about 2 cups]
- 2 bay leaves
- 36 threads / 3 pinches saffron
- 2 strips orange rind
- 3 tbsp golden syrup
- 200 ml single cream [about 1 cup]
- 3 eggs
- 150 ml white rum [about 1/2 cup]
- Grated fresh nutmeg, to serve
1. Pour the milk, bay leaves, saffron, orange rind, golden syrup and cream into a pan, and simmer gently for 10 minutes. Strain through a sieve.
2. Break the eggs into a glass heat-proof bowl, then slowly whisk in the hot milk mixture.
3. Place the bowl above a pan of boiling water and heat gently, stirring, until the mixture thickens to a custardy consistency. Then take it straight off the heat.
4. Whisk in the rum, then pour the mixture into a jug. Cool, then leave to stand in the refrigerator for at least 8 hours before serving.
5. Serve over ice with grated nutmeg.
USE: Drink no more than 1 wineglass a day.
STORAGE: Keep in the refrigerator. Will last for 2 weeks.
This is a great holiday treat to help with holiday anxiety and some of the stress and depression that seems to manifest around that time of year. But who says eggnog is just a Christmas time thing? I say, drink it all year round!
Lussekatter – Swedish Saffron Buns (Recipe from here)
- 300ml milk
- 1g saffron
- 50g baker’s yeast
- 150g sugar
- 125g butter or 125 gmargarine
- 700g all-purpose flour
- Melt butter or margarine in a pan and add the milk and the saffron.
- Warm the mixture to 37 oC (100 oF).
- Use a thermometer; the correct temperature is important!
- Pour the mixture over the finely divided yeast; then add the remaining ingredients (except for the egg and the raisins), which should have a temperature of 21-23 oC (72-75 oF).
- Mix into a smooth dough.
- Cover the dough with a piece of cloth and let it rise for 30 minutes.
- Knead the dough, divide it into 25-30 pieces and form each piece into a round bun.
- Let the buns rest for a few minutes, covered by a piece of cloth.
- Form each bun into a string, 15-20 cm long, then arrange the string in a suitable shape, e.g. an S or double S. Regardless of the shape, the ends of the string should meet.
- Press a few raisins into the dough.
- Cover the”Lucia cats” with a piece of cloth and let them rise for 40 minutes.
- Whip the egg together with a few grains of salt, and paint the”Lucia cats” with the mixture.
- Bake them for 5-10 minutes in the oven at 250 oC (475 oF) until golden brownish yellow.
History of the bun – “A Swedish Tradition On 13 December the Swedes celebrate the Italian Saint Lucia with a remarkable enthusiasm, surpassing any Italian festivities devoted to the same lady. One mandatory constituent in the celebrations is a saffron-flavoured bun, in Swedish called a lussekatt, a “Lucia cat”. The shape of this bun might vary somewhat, but is always based on bread designs dating back to earlier Christmas celebrations in Sweden.”
If you are interested in a british version of this bun, check out this recipe for the Revel Bun or Tea Treat Bun.
Saffron Pot de Creme (recipe is from here with some slight alterations)
- 5 ounces Heavy cream
- 1/4 cup and 1 teaspoon of raw honey
- 1/4 cup Whole milk
- 2 tablespoons Rosewater
- 1 egg and 2 egg yolks
- 1/2-1 Vanilla bean (with the delicious insides scraped out)
- 1 tablespoon Crushed Pistachios or slivered almonds (optional)
- Generous (about a gram) pinch of saffron
Pre-heat oven to 320°, in a medium sauce pan on low heat warm the cream, milk, rosewater, saffron threads and honey. Make sure you keep the heat low and stir often, sugars and milk will curdle on you if you aren’t careful and then you have a weird cheese that usually is useless. Take the vanilla pods and drop them into the pot and take off the heat, and set aside the insides in a mixing bowl (mediumish sized). Add the egg yolks and egg to the vanilla and beat until it thickens and becomes a pale yellow.
Temper the eggs with a small amount of the cream mixture (so they don’t curdle), and then slowly add in the eggs to the cream/milk mixture stirring but not beating so they are fully combined. Set aside for 5 minutes and put a kettle on with water to boil and prepare your ramekins (or shot glasses or small jars) and place then with at least a half inch between them (don’t crowd them!) in a large baking dish or pan (pyrex or ceramic is best). Strain the mixture into a large measuring cup or something with an easy pour spout and divide the mix between the ramekins/glasses/jars evenly.
Set your rack to the middle of the oven, and place the dish on it (if you can extend your rack out this will make things easier) and pour in the boiling water until it comes up 3/4 of the way up the containers. Bake for 40-45 minutes or until mostly set but still wibbly wobbly.
You can roast pistachios, or even almonds to garnish this. Or even go full crème brûlée style and sprinkle some sugar on top and caramelize it under a broiler or with a blowtorch (do not burn your fingers!).
Moroccan Chicken Tagine and Couscous (or better known as “that dish that made the house look like Jonestown”)
So before I start I guess I should explain the title of the recipe. My husband had forgotten he had a football (soccer) game and had to leave immediately that evening. We had friends over and I had made dinner so we promised to keep some warm for him, and the friends and I sat down to dinner. Well we all forgot that if you eat couscous it is very filling, and by the time he got home we were all passed out (one even on the floor) from “the itis” (if you don’t know what that is watch this). So this dish has become legendary, for its tastiness as well as its sleep inducing qualities 🙂
Also if you have a Tagine, it is the best for cooking this, but if you don’t have one a good cast iron dutch oven will do just fine. Also this is a dish that requires marinating so prep the night before and cook the next day.
Moroccan Chicken Tagine
- pinch of saffron threads
- 2 tablespoons warm water
- 2 large Yellow onions (roughly chopped into pieces)
- 1/2 cup Fresh cilantro (plus a bit extra for garnish)
- 1/2 cup Fresh Flat leaf parsley (plus a bit extra for garnish)
- 4 tablespoons Fresh lemon juice
- 1 teaspoon Ground cumin
- 1/2 teaspoon Ground ginger
- 1/2 teaspoon Ground turmeric
- salt, a generous pinch
- 2-4 Cloves of Garlic, crushed
- 1 Whole chicken divided, or 6-8 chicken thighs (thighs work better and I prefer to use just them)
- 2-3 preserved lemons (homemade is best but you can buy them in most mediterranean markets)
- 1/2 cup Good quality chicken stock (homemade is best)
- 1 1/2 cups Good quality green olives (I prefer ones with the pits in)
- 2 Gallon ziploc bag, or large sealed container
In a small bowl put saffron and warm water together, you can use the liquid saffron from above as well just use 2 tablespoons worth. Let saffron steep for at least 10 minutes but I usually let it steep while I prep everything else so it ends up being a bit longer sometimes.
In a food processor, or powerful blender (seriously love my vitamix for making this!) combine the roughly chopped onions, cilantro, parsley, cumin, ginger, turmeric, 2 tablespoons of lemon juice, and the 2 tablespoons of saffron liquid, add a pinch or two of salt if you weren’t using saffron liquid. Puree everything until it becomes a nice paste and throw it into your ziploc bag (I prefer a ziploc because I can squish things around to make sure everything gets coated nicely and it is also lots of fun!). Throw in your chicken and make sure each piece has a good coating of the marinade. Press out the air and seal, throw it in your fridge for at least 8 hours but 24 is the best.
Transfer the chicken and the marinade to your tagine or dutch oven add in the pulp of the preserved lemons and a few slivers of the lemon peel, add the olives and you can sort of arrange it to look lovely when you lift the lid. Add the chicken stock, and lemon juice, bring up to a boil then reduce heat and the put lid on. Simmer on low for about 50-60 minutes, or until the chicken is fall off the bone tender.
Remove the lid and garnish with parsley and cilantro and serve from the pot on bed of couscous below.
- 2 tablespoon Olive oil
- 1/3 cup Dried apricots, cut into slivers
- 2 2/3 cups Good chicken stock (again homemade is best)
- 1/2 teaspoon Ground turmeric (you could use a pinch saffron instead here if you want)
- 2/3 cup Slivered almonds, toasted
- 1/4 cup Dried currants
- 1 teaspoon Orange zest
- 2 tablespoons Fresh lemon juice
- 1/2 cup Fresh mint, sliced into thin strips
In a large bowl, drizzle olive oil over the couscous and toss to coat all the grains with the oil. Add in apricot slivers, and toss again. In a small saucepan bring the stock to a boil over medium heat. Stir in turmeric and 1/4 teaspoon salt. Then pour over couscous and apricots. Cover the bowl tightly with saran wrap, and let stand for 5 minutes. Remove covering and fluff with a fork, stir in the almonds, currants, orange zest, lemon juice and mint. Add salt and pepper to taste.
Saudi Arabic Coffee
It isn’t really Saudi coffee unless it has saffron in it (or so I am told), so you can follow this recipe from my post on cardamom and include just saffron out of the optional ingredients for the real deal at home.
- 1 cup Light roast coffee beans, lightest you can find
- 1-2 pods Cardamom
- a pinch of saffron
- Coffee grinder
- French Press (or if you have the traditional Turkish implements to brew it, have at it)
Grind the coffee with the cardamom and saffron, place about four tablespoons in 4 cup french press. Add boiling water, wait 4-8 minutes depending on how strong you like your coffee. Press and serve. Seriously this stuff is fantastic, and very relaxing to drink after a good meal with friends. Or just to relieve stress from a rough day.
Remember all bodies are different and have different chemistry, make sure you do some trial runs to make sure this works for you. Always check for interactions with other drugs you are taking, check sites like WebMD. If you are ever in doubt, ask a professional!
If you are interested in more Medieval recipes with saffron check out this site. If you are interested in some interesting (and delicious) apple pie recipes with saffron in them go here. If you are looking to add saffron to some of your dishes other than the chicken dish I have listed, check out some of the recipes here or here.